Social impacts of tourism refers to changes in the lives of people living in destination communities. Cultural impacts of tourism refers to changes in the arts, artifacts, customs, rituals, and architecture of a people. The term socio-cultural impactssocio-cultural impacts refers to changes to resident’s everyday experiences, as well as to their values, way of life, and intellectual and artistic products.
SOCIOLOGY OF TOURISM: Defining Society, Culture and Impacts
NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM CHANGE OR LOSS OF INDIGENOUS IDENTITY OR VALUES Tourism can cause change / loss of local identity and values by:
- LOSS OF AUTHENTICITY / STAGED AUTHENTICITY
- ADAPTATION TO TOURIST DEMANDS
NEGATIVE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
Standardization •Destinations risk standardization in the process of satisfying tourists’ desires for familiar facilities. •While landscape, accommodation, food and drinks, etc., must meet the tourists’ desire for the new and unfamiliar, they must at the same time not be too new or strange because few tourists are actually looking for completely new things. •Tourists often look for recognizable facilities in an unfamiliar environment, like well-known fast-food restaurants and hotel chains.
In order to attract more tourism special emphasis is given on overall beautification of the surroundings, regular planting of trees and landscaping are done to enhance aesthetics. Huge investment is done to improve the facilities in the area like sitting areas, shades, proper sanitation, drinking water etc. More emphasis is given to preserve the monuments, heritage structures to attract more tourists.
Any kind of development requires some interference with the nature. Overdevelopment comes at the cost of nature. There may be damage to the natural flora and fauna. Local people are displaced for want of coastal area development. With more people in the area, more natural resources are required which leads to depletion of natural resources. Waste disposal problems crop up and without proper measures to handle this problem it may worsen the situation. Due to more footfall, more transport, more noise, improper waste disposal, pollution increases in the area and disturbs the ecological balance of the region.-
Tourism industry has contributes to the economic growth of a country through factors like industrialization, education, advance technology, higher number of qualified professionals, opening up of foreign markets, liberal trade policies and better advertising and strategic marketing.
The above factors collectively boost the economic reserves of the region thus leading to rise in income and better disposable income. Tourism can also benefit economies at regional and local levels, as money comes into urban and rural areas which in turn stimulates new business enterprises, greater markets and promotes a more positive image of the area. The income generated helps the national balance of payments, earning revenue through direct taxation, as well as from indirect taxes on goods and services purchased by the tourists.
Whereas the virtues of international tourism have been extolled as a major force for peace and understanding between nations the reality is often far removed from his utopian image. Long-haul travel between developed and developing countries is increasing annually and is bringing them into direct contact with each other. People come from widely different background and with every contrasting life styles and levels of income. Where these disparities are very great the political as well as the socio-cultural consequences may be severe.